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[danman] has been trying various HDMI video streaming options,
. The "HDMI Extender" priced at $40 is actually HDMI to
Converter under the hood.
He had done work on a similar extender before, and later found out that the extender used
Sending the video, he naturally reversed the video and made a tender. But the non-standard format is troublesome. Therefore, when he was provided with a newer version of the same device and started using Wireshark to peek at the data packets, he was pleasantly surprised to find that the output was only MPEG encoded video on RTP. No need to hack.
So far, streaming video from any HDMI output over an IP network has been tricky, and [danman] has always been obsessed with running videos at a cheap price. In addition to the previous version of this extension, he also managed to download
. This will cost more, but it can also be recorded at the same time if needed.
However, none of these can solve the HDMI HDCP encryption problem. you are
(The Wireshark wizard at your place will notice that we just brushed the title image from the previous version of the project. There is no good image for this. Sorry.)
If the dwarf of hdmi hackers is listening, I would love to see someone make a four-in-one view multiplexer that requires 4 1080p hdmi inputs and a 4k hdmi output. Commercial units are about $1k+.
Such a task would require ASICs (very expensive unless manufactured in amazing mass production) or fast and bulky FPGAs with 5 HDMI ports (not sure if they even make... 2 ports less), which Won't be much cheaper...
Why do you still want to splice 4 HDMI streams together?
It's just a guess, but maybe it's the display of the surveillance camera, or maybe it's a PiP-type transaction for watching sports games. But until cheap hackable products come out, it may be easier and cheaper to use a PC with a GPU or accelerator to process video content.
It may be cheaper to adopt 4K NVR, stream with 4x 1080 h264 IP stream and output 4K HMDI.
If you don’t include HD channel units, you will spend about $300 through a distributor in China, and its design goal is to reach 247.
Prices will drop rapidly in the next 12 months.
Only when the PC is free...Once you increase the cost of the PC, you still have to pay a high budget...
This should not be difficult to do, and it is not that expensive. Use 4 ADI's HDMI receiver chips (unfortunately non-HDCP), an ADI's HDMI transmitter chip and cheap Altera Cyclone IV or CycloneV. The firmware will be very simple. I guess that some DDR will be needed as a frame buffer. Most (all?) Altera Cyclone FPGAs with transceivers (GX) onboard are not enough to pull 5 HDMIs. Overall, this is a very simple product. About a year ago, the management I worked for mentioned this exact same product, but it never succeeded.
Like what... 1 FPS.
You only need at least DDR3 bandwidth to read and write these streams to memory, which is the minimum...If you don't want to drop frames, you may need more bandwidth.
Even a 2k stream is about 8GBps...you need to be within the 32GBps memory bandwidth to be able to read and write 4 1080p and 1 4k stream...without considering the overhead.
Now, once Altera releases an FPGA with onboard HBM/HBM2, you will have enough bandwidth.
What to do now? 1080p60 will not take up so much bandwidth, and 2k or 4k will not take up too much bandwidth. Here are some actual numbers... 1920 pixels wide * 1080 pixels high * 24 bits deep * 60 frames per second / 8 bits per byte = 373MB/s. There is also no pixel subsampling in this calculation. Multiply it by 4 (for writing 4 1080p60 streams) to get 1492MB/s, and then multiply by 2 (for reading 4 streams, because a single 4K equals 4 1080p) to get 2984MB/s. The peak transfer rate of DDR2-400 is 3200MB/s. These figures seem to be very cost-effective to me. A slightly faster DDR2 will bring more overhead. Even 8-bit 4:4:4 RAW 4k video is lower than 2GB/s. Uncompressed 2k video cannot reach 64Gb/s.
Yes, I believe there will be some confusion in my calculations at some point:/
As you seem to know something about the subject, a quick question is somewhat related: What is the division of HDMI input into four HDMI outputs (basically output top left, top right, bottom)? -From the original video feed to the four distinct screens-"Left" and "Bottom Right" "Rectangular Part".
I have no chance to play FPGA (although?), although I may have 4 of them that can extract such "rectangular parts" and output them to the screen (I did not consider the expanded content here, so each "rectangular second" The resolution is 1/4 of the original input.
->If this can be done [cheaply], it is indispensable that I cannot miss; p
I think 1 to 4 is about the same as 4 to 1. Non-fancy video scaling will also be easy. The hardest part of the whole project is designing and building the hardware. As a disposable device, I think it is not cheap. According to 4 sources, HDCP may still be an issue.
Thank you for your quick reply ;)
Current products involve the use of SD cards as storage devices, and some inexpensive "movie players" boxes with HDMI output.
(The video material is also completely ours:)
In addition to HDCP, any tips on ideal BOM and pricing (when purchasing a bottle price [may be [hope] more [hope? ^^]])
Another idea, although not ideal, is to provide a TV with the function of “enlarge the video source” (set one for each screen, which may only make a part of the original video source actually visible on the screen, while the whole is still Sending-Although it is not efficient at all/very hacky/not even sure, if this kind of TV can be provided, it might be a quick hack)
Therefore, the tips are not just welcome, I will dig out the necessary content and try my best to make some suggestions :)
It's hard to say how much the BOM cost... this is not something I do every day. Our prices on FPGAs are also very favorable, so for most people, any numbers I generate internally will be unrealistic.
This is the basic BOM table I tried... Altera Cyclone IV (EP4CE75), one Analog Devices ADV7612 HDMI receiver, one DDR2 (the bigger the better), four Analog Devices ADV7513 HDMI transmitters for FPGA/HDMI devices Proper power supply, EPCS (25P28) boot FPGA, EEPROM (24LC128) for setting, more EDID EEPROM, if you want to run Linux on Nios II, it may be another DDR2, Ethernet or RS232 for remote control. I may be missing something.
You definitely need a good PCB layout staff...DDR and HDMI and Ethernet require specific PCB layout requirements and length matching, proper impedance and termination, etc.
You can ping BlackMagic Design's MultiView 16 to see if it can meet your needs.
The video uses a 27MHz oscillator, and the Ethernet uses a 25MHz oscillator... forget this. All other useful clocks can be PLL locked in the FPGA through these two base frequencies.
Thanks~BOM, I'll dig that one: D
Can you elaborate on what you want to achieve? I suspect that creating a PCB may be the best solution to your problem. Unless it involves a challenge/learning process, be sure to continue :)
Some client’s partners told me that he has a video feed (actually a video played on a cheap movie player) with 4 "views" on it, and each "view" must be split into a video Before he can use the HDMI cable (he is currently using 1 to 4 HDMI splitters to display the same content on each screen), he wants to know what is the cheapest way to achieve this
I have already thought of the idea of ordering some cheap "HD movie players" from ebay: split the video beforehand, and then just copy the content to the SD card, and then be read by some movie players. The controls of each player are tied to the uC (or plug in the IR receiver signal line...).. The video we want to play is "synchronized" (if we have the same TV/SD card/movie player as "precise" .. Hope?.. or at least a constant, beware when preparing video content).
Now, in addition to playing the video, I also hope that there is a setting that can act as an RPi in kiosk mode (boot via logo, then no boot log, and then a place where you can run WebGL stuff and interact with GPIO-presumably Chrome ?).. but able to send different output to 4 screens connected via HDMK
=> If it is implemented, I can execute Three.js things on 4 screens at a time, if some custom controllers are used for control, it will be even better (for my/my needs, at least ^^)
(In order to achieve the above "cheap", I thought of using 4 Pis and controlling them via serial or I2C to send commands to the server that is passed and parsed by the application/game running on each Chromium, and then update The screen to reflect the actions and things of the subscriber ;))
-One of the reasons is to challenge and learn new things (those FPGA...)
– Another reason is.. It will be neat/useful (if there are no devices with over-corrected devices that can accurately handle that thing.. Is it cheaper in some way? :/..): D
What do you think?
A simple and reliable solution sounds like a PC with 4 HDMI ports. They can be mirrored or split. Then use the software video player that extends on all four desktops. I have done this on 2 screens with no problems with a $600 computer.
Yes, it does seem to be a more powerful setting (but expensive :/);)
Video that stretches across the desktop is a simple and effective solution, and it is not difficult for me to handle multiple windows for a custom application instead of only displaying the video (..) later.
Let me see if I can find an "all-in-one" product with the necessary video card:)
Not really, the $40 android hdmi stick based on S905X will decode 4 full HD h264 streams and output 4K video effortlessly
That would require the video to be encoded first. HDMI is not compressed. It may be low-depth, or it may be sub-sampled, but still uncompressed.
High-quality, real-time (low latency), four channels of 1080p video are not necessarily cheap.
If you only have a $40 HDMI to RTP HDMI extender, you can buy...
I see what you did there. I said the quality is very good. You said you are truncating/zooming.
RTP to HDMI MultiViewer (decoding 4 RTP streams into a single 4k output) can be interesting.
Check out HDS 841SL. This is a four-screen viewer, which requires 4 1080p and output one. It can also display all four signals at the same time. Not quite 4k, but very close to what you want to do under $300. Only catch? As far as I know, there is no setting when the screen is divided equally. It may bring a good cracking effect.
Then look at these:
The extractor gear is great.
Never heard of this brand before. It seems that they have some neat equipment that can be used at work.
It looks like a lot of their stuff is SDI...too bad, it's not really consumer friendly. However, I also don't see any 4k support.
The MultiView 4 produced by Blackmagic Design can perform the functions required by the OP. It costs $500 and supports 4k, but also only has SDI input.
Yes... have seen these two. I really want to avoid converting 4 hdmi to sdi before 4k pins. SPLITMUX-4K-4RT is exactly what I need, not that Id wants to pay for $1,600. I am really surprised that the 4k screen does not have 4 1080 hdmi input and has this feature built in.
Check DELL P4317Q. At a resolution of 3840×2160, it can drive 4 independent 1920×1080 signals to the screen, but it only has 2xHDMI, 1xDP, 1xmini-DP, 1xVGA, so you must convert from HDMI or use a different type of input .
There are no 4 HDMI inputs at all, but Numato Opsis (
) Is an interesting platform that supports 2 HDMI inputs and 2 HDMI outputs. It may be feasible to modify this design to make it all as input.
I need an HDMI pass-through type device that also distributes audio to the LR RCA jack, provides VGA output and composite video to the RCA jack. (Essentially HDMI input, HDMI + VGA + CVBS + LR output). No one does this in a unit (I found out). To set up this type immediately, I had to blend various splitters and converters together. This is for mobile DJ/Karaoke consoles, so space is very precious, and multi-unit options will take up too much space.
Known as audio de-embedders, they are all over eBay and Amazon
You also need a scaler to convert digital video to analog video. And it does not apply to any source protected by HDCP, such as DVD or Bluray players.
There is a $20 HDMI splitter to fix HDCP
If you can watch it, you can convert it to analog (:
I can find any number of units to convert the HDMI signal to any single analog output (such as VGA or CVBS), but I cannot provide a unit that can output all formats at the same time, this is what I am looking for. As a mobile DJ/Karaoke host, it would be helpful to put the video signal on the wall-mounted display of the venue and my own singer's lyrics screen. It has the flexibility to output all the most common video signals (HDMI + VGA + composite), which means that I can not only display video in any specific place.
Hi Irishman, teleste has made a box that can do this. They are expensive though. We are using mcc201e, which can even be powered by an HDMI socket, but I don’t recommend this.
1728×1080 @ 30 frames/sec
What F? ! ? !! ??! ? ! Stupid Chinese! :/There is no overscan on the digital signal, why do you want to do this F? :/:/ :(
Oh, and even worse is its 1728×1090. They are tightened in both sizes. It seems that it is not cut off and scanned, but actually resized? So it's not even pixel perfect
Sometimes, the encoder requires the resolution to be a multiple of the macroblock size. For example, since 1920 and 1088 are both equally divisible by 16 (MPEG2 macroblock size), the MPEG2 encoder can input 1920×1088. *Maybe* explained 1728, not 1090. An encoder I have studied adds 8 rows of black pixels to 1088 at the bottom of the image before running the video through an FPGA-based encoding engine. .
I think the overscan is in the HDMI specification, which is attributed to the NTSC tradition in the 1930s.
It looks like the blog post about HDMI extenders has been updated. A new firmware was found, which allows more settings to be changed from the web interface. Obviously, this firmware can also output a more correct resolution of 1920×1090. If the extra pixels are just padding, there is no mention.
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Hollyland announced the new
. This is the company's follow-up action
The redesigned body should simplify the system when it is installed on the camera. When I first saw the design, it reminded me of the old Ricoh WG-60 waterproof digital camera.
I personally don't like these appearances. Ironically, the Mars 400S Pro looks more productive than the producer Mars 400S.
The biggest difference between Mars 400S Pro and Mars 400S is appearance. Nothing has changed. Both TX units have SDI and HDMI inputs, and both TX units have SDI and HDMI outputs.
The Mars 400S Pro TX and RX units weigh 206 grams (0.5 pounds), which is actually slightly heavier than the Mars 400S RX and TX units.
In terms of physical dimensions, the dimensions of the Mars 400S Pro RX and TX units are 4.3 x 2.8 x 1.32 inches / 11 x 7.2 x 3.35 cm. Mars 400S RX and TX are 4.41 x 2.56 x 0.94 inches / 11.2 x 6.5 x 2.4 cm
The original 400S and 400s Pro have the same claimed range when using RX and TX units, with a maximum range of 400', while when using TX and Hollyview Wi-Fi apps, the maximum range is 300'.
The delay time of 400S Pro is said to be 80 milliseconds. The sender can send at most one receiver and two applications at the same time, or send a total of four applications without the receiver. Through SDI or HDMI input, it can output up to 1080p60. This is exactly the same as Mars 400S.
In addition to the redesigned shell, compared with the original Mars 400S, there is indeed no obvious improvement.
Using the Hollyview app for iOS or Android, you can monitor the video transmission through a Wi-Fi connection, or you can use a USB Type-C adapter to monitor the real-time stream directly from the receiver through the computer. The app also allows you to install optional channel scanning firmware to easily find the strongest transmission signal. The sender can send at most one receiver and two applications at the same time, or send a total of four applications without the receiver.
The 400S PRO TX and RX have bright OLED displays for configuration; integrated hot shoe adapters with 1/4" -20 mounting threads for different mounting options.
You can use the USB Type-C power supply, the included lock-type DC power adapter to power each unit, or you can use a single-use L series battery with integrated battery board.
The retail price of Hollyland Mars 400S Pro is
, Which is $80 higher than the current price of Mars 400S on B&H ($569).
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News, tutorials, comments and operating methods related to embedded Linux and Android, Raspberry Pi, Arduino, ESP8266, development board, SBC, TV box, mini PC, etc.
The host or media player may not always be located in the same room as its monitor. For example, for digital signage, you may want to have multiple monitors controlled by a computer in different rooms, or you may want to add a monitor to one of your rooms In the room without having to add another TV box or set-top box.
We have seen solutions that extend the video signal to hundreds of meters using the following methods:
. The former is quite expensive (about $250), while the latter is only suitable for composite materials. Today, I came across other video extender solutions that rely on Cat5/Cat6 "Ethernet" cables, first through the sale of Ethernet to VGA extender kits.
, But there are also Ethernet to HDMI solutions
The maximum distance provided via Ethernet is 120 meters.
Both have a receiver and a transmitter, the latter is connected to the HDMI and VGA output of the host, and the former is connected to the display.
The VGA extender kit shown above can extend the signal to 60 meters, and neither the transmitter nor the receiver requires an external power supply. However, the main disadvantage is that although it is used with Cat5 cables,
, So you can’t simply connect it to the switch and expect it to work, and as far as I know, you need to use a straight cable between the receiver and the transmitter.
HDMI to "Ethernet" extender seems to work
Supports direct Cat5/Cat6 connection similar to VGA models, but can also convert HDMI signals into IP packets. They have a 5V power supply on each side, use Cat6 cables, and models that cost about $40 can reach a distance of 120 meters. Please note that Banggood only sells receivers, and I cannot find the sender on their website. The cheap $25 kit on Tomtop comes with both Rx and Tx, but the range using Cat6 cable is limited to 60 meters.
The models mentioned above support a maximum resolution of 1080p60, although there are some 4K HDMI extenders on Cat6/Cat7 cables, they are obviously more expensive
, And the more expensive model can support HDMI 2.0a up to 4K at 60K Hz at a distance of 70 meters. You will also see a $700 model on this page, but it is based on a long-distance optical fiber connection of 10 kilometers.
Since HDMI extenders work over a network, you can use routers/switches and multiple receivers to connect multiple displays to a single HDMI extender transmitter, which can be any device with Ethernet and HDMI output.
Jean-Luc started working part-time in 2010, then resigned as a software engineering manager, started writing daily news, and made full-time reviews later in 2011.
The Crowbits STEM educational kit consists of magnetic modules launched on Kickstarter a few weeks ago. There are five increasingly difficult tools in Hello Kit, which only require students to connect to the module to get started, that is, no programming is required.
We are beginning to see more and more security cameras with built-in AI functions, such as the Reolink RLC-810A 4K camera with people and vehicle detection functions or the low-cost Vacom Cam Full HD cameras with only people detection functions. I have...
In my early list of third-party Raspberry Pi RP2040, I briefly mentioned the Cytron Maker Pi Pico backplane for Raspberry Pi Pico, which exposes all pins through a female connector, including LEDs for all GPIO pins, and six Grove connections. , Three users...
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The HDMI 2.1 specification has been in use for some time, first of all
. The new specification is the result of an impressive effort made by the HDMI Forum, an open trade association dedicated to promoting "a wider industry to participate in the development of future versions of the HDMI specification and to further expand its ecosystem"). Interoperable products that support HDMI. "The members of the forum include many of the world’s leading consumer electronics manufacturers, as well as testing laboratories, film studios and other institutions. They are trying to develop a new HDMI standard that should have basic future-oriented capabilities ( Or-at least foreseeable). Until the end of 2020, with the emergence of the first HDMI 2.1 source component, the team’s design work and plans will finally be realized, and this component will be added to more and more existing or upcoming List of HDMI 2.1 audio components and displays on the market, finally, home users can assemble a complete HDMI 2.1 gear chain.
What's all the fuss about? In short, bandwidth. HDMI 2.0b (the predecessor of 2.1) can reach a maximum bandwidth of 18 Gbps (gigabits per second). Just a few years ago, this was a good sum of money, but the AV signals generated by today's game consoles and 4K Blu-ray players may almost consume space in the road. These devices provide 4K video at up to 60 fps (frames per second). Currently, the only source capable of outputting 4K video at 60 fps or higher is a high-end gaming PC. But by the end of this year, we will begin to see sources that can provide 8K video at 60 frames per second or 4K video at a smooth rate of 120 frames per second. In order to support higher resolutions and higher frame rates as well as some useful new features, HDMI 2.1 provides a bandwidth of up to 48 Gbps. In addition to allowing higher resolution and higher frame rates to provide smooth, fast motion details, this additional bandwidth will also support dynamic HDR, ensuring that every moment and color of the video content is displayed with the ideal combination of brightness and contrast . HDMI 2.1 also improves the audio experience and simplifies system connections through a feature called eARC or an enhanced audio return channel. eARC ensures compatibility between AV devices, while supporting the most advanced audio formats available and the highest quality audio signals. (More information about eARC at the end of this article.)
It is almost certain that the first two source components that support 8K at 60 fps and 4K at 120 fps will be Sony’s upcoming Playstation 5 and Microsoft’s new Xbox Series X, both of which are planned to be available in the 2020 holiday season. Not surprisingly, these cutting-edge game consoles should be the first HDMI 2.1 source, especially when you consider some of the enhanced gaming and media features included in the new specifications-many of them focus on smooth motion and/or reduced input Lag.
I will introduce these features in more detail in the short term, but it is worth pointing out that even if you are not interested in the game, you may find one or more of them useful.
At the 2020 International Consumer Electronics Show (CES 2020), there are 8K TVs everywhere, and the ability to transmit 8K signals at a refresh rate of 60 Hz is one of the most concerned features of HDMI 2.1 video functions. To be fair, if you have the opportunity to see LG’s Signature ZX 88-inch 8K OLED TV, you will definitely be impressed, with its horizontal and vertical resolutions twice that of a 4K display and four times the pixels ( More than 33 million). But the reality is that there is almost no 8K content at the moment, and few of us will upgrade to 8K TVs in the next year or two. Therefore, for most people, the real benefit of the video performance brought about by the increased bandwidth of HDMI 2.1 will be the ability to send 4K video at 120 frames per second, which is twice the frame rate provided by HDMI 2.0b. As Phil Jones of Sound United mentioned in a recent video interview with Audioholics founder Gene DellaSala, many gamers are excited to be able to play 4K games at higher frame rates because the smooth motion allows for smoother And play the game easily. The ability to display UHD images at 120 fps can also benefit certain movies and TV content, such as action movies, nature documentaries, and sports shows. Higher frame rates can provide clearer images, even in fast-moving scenes. Can also maintain clarity. Support the latest color space, such as BT.2020 (also known as Rec.2020), each color component has 10 or 12 bits. For commercial audio-visual installations and industrial/professional use, HDMI 2.1 can support other resolutions, including 5K or even 10K.
If you are a technical expert in video transmission, you may want to know whether compression is used in the HDMI 2.1 specification to achieve these high resolutions and frame rates. The short answer may be. The specification supports both compressed and uncompressed modes, and each manufacturer decides which mode to implement. However, even with compression, the specification includes VESA DSC (Display Stream Compression) 1.2a, which is a visually lossless compression scheme. At 60 fps, all videos with resolutions and frame rates higher than 8K require DSC, but this is not important for home users. In order to obtain a higher uncompressed resolution than HDMI 2.0b (that is, higher than 4K at 60 fps), the HDMI 2.1 specification uses a new signaling technology called FRL (Fixed Rate Link). This technology replaces the TMDS (Minimized Conversion of Differential Signals) used in early versions of HDMI, but HDMI 2.1 is backward compatible with devices using TMDS, so for home users, the conversion should be seamless and painless.
Most modern displays (TVs or projectors) cannot fully utilize the maximum potential image quality provided by the 48 Gpbs bandwidth of HDMI 2.1. why? Currently, LCD and OLED panels used in high-end consumer TVs are native 10-bit panels. To transmit 4K chroma 4:4:4 and 10-bit 4K video at 120 fps, 40 Gpbs is required. To transmit 8K images with 10-bit color at 60 fps, a maximum of 40 Gpbs (uncompressed) is also required. (If DSC compression is applied, the necessary bandwidth will be reduced to 18Gpbs.) For example, all of LG's 2020 OLEDs have HDMI 2.1 ports, but they are limited to 40 Gbps instead of 48 Gbps of bandwidth. But because they use native 10-bit panels, 40 Gbps is enough to maximize the panel's functionality. Due to the limitations of these panels, in any case, 40 Gbps can now be regarded as the maximum bandwidth required for actual scenarios.
Many experts agree that the most significant improvement in video quality achieved in the UHD era is not the inherent high resolution of 4K video, but the emergence of high dynamic range (HDR). With HDR, video content can provide a greater range of contrast from dark to light, resulting in a high-impact experience. The result is that the light and dark parts of a given image have brighter whites, darker blacks, and improved details. This improved contrast, combined with more detail in the expanded color space, helps provide a more intrinsic video experience. The HDR solution can be static (meaning it uses a set of metadata to optimize the image brightness curve of the entire video), or dynamic, which means it uses dynamic metadata to optimize the brightness of the image scene by scene or even frame by frame. . Frame by frame. Static HDR solutions (such as HDR10) and dynamic HDR solutions (such as Dolby Vision) can be delivered on previous HDMI versions, but the HDMI 2.1 specification supports a variety of static and dynamic HDR solutions to ensure that dynamic metadata is not used in the future. It must be bound to a proprietary format (such as Dolby Vision), which requires the manufacturer to pay a license fee. HDR-enabled devices that implement HDMI 2.1 will transmit static and dynamic HDR metadata through the HDMI interface in a standardized way to ensure that the metadata will be delivered correctly regardless of the manufacturer of the product. To ensure that users will get all the benefits of dynamic HDR without compatibility issues, all HDMI 2.1 devices must undergo the same mandatory compliance testing.
As mentioned earlier, the HDMI 2.1 specification includes many features designed to improve the gaming experience, including variable refresh rate (VRR), automatic low latency mode (ALLM), fast media switching (QMS) and fast frame transfer (QFT). . I will now give a more in-depth introduction to these features to explain their full meaning and how they can benefit non-gamers as well.
VRR aims to reduce or eliminate lag, jitter and frame tearing, thereby making the game process more smooth and detailed. But what does this mean? When you play a video game, the graphics processing unit (GPU) in your computer or game console will render the image faster or slower based on what is happening on the screen and the processing power available. But traditionally, the refresh rate of a TV or monitor is static, which means it will never deviate from the specified frequency (for example, 60 Hz). It doesn't matter whether the GPU needs more time to render a particular frame in a particularly complex scene-this happens often, depending on the power of the GPU and the selected resolution-the display refreshes when it refreshes. If the GPU has not finished rendering the next frame before the display is refreshed, the GPU must repeat the previous frame or send an incompletely rendered frame. result? Occasionally there will be a "tear" picture, which will bring a long-lost jury experience. VRR solves this problem by allowing the source and display to work together and changing the refresh rate as needed. The GPU can wait until the next frame is ready before sending it to the display, and the display can wait to refresh until the next frame is received. By synchronizing the refresh rate of the display with the refresh rate of the content generated from the source, the gaming experience will become smoother and more direct. At any given time, the refresh rate may be in any range between 30 Hz and 120 Hz, depending on the burden of the GPU at this time. If you are not a gamer, you might think that VRR has nothing to do with your needs, but that is not the case. Facts have proved that many Web-based video content end up with abnormal frame rates, which may be because it is produced using a variety of non-standardized hardware and software combinations. So if you like watching YouTube and other Internet content (and not who?), you might benefit from VRR because your TV will be able to display the content at its original frame rate.
The automatic low-latency mode is relatively simple. Many TVs (and some AV receivers, such as recent Denon and Marantz models) have a low-latency mode or "gaming mode" that reduces input delay-the time the TV or monitor actually displays the signal has been received. If you are playing a video game, input lag may be the main part of the delay experienced between pressing a button on the controller and seeing the character/game reacting on the screen. In some competitive online game scenarios, a short lag time will give you an advantage over other players. This is like extending your own personal reaction time, which is essential for both gamers and athletes. But before using ALLM, you must manually set the TV to game mode (by entering the menu system) before playing games, and then manually set it to the normal environment when you want to watch TV or movies. (Since the low-latency mode reduces input lag by cutting into the image processing point, the resulting image quality is not optimal for normal viewing.) The automatic low-latency mode allows game consoles, PCs or other devices to transfer to the following devices Send signal: automatically turn on the TV in low-latency game mode. When the signal source no longer needs to reduce latency-suppose you stop playing games on the PS5 and then use the console to play a movie-the signal source will disable the signal and the TV will return to its normal settings for the best picture quality. Once again, this player-centric feature may prove useful for non-gaming activities, such as video conferencing (which is becoming more and more important during the coronavirus pandemic), or even karaoke.
Therefore, ALLM aims to reduce the lag time inside the TV, that is, the time it takes for the TV itself to display the received image. Fast frame transmission is also designed to reduce latency, but it is not something related to the settings in the TV, but a system inside the HDMI cable that reduces the time required for video frames to pass from the original source device (such as a game console). Or a PC, and then connected to a display device-it can be a TV, a computer monitor or a virtual reality headset. The delay mentioned here is called "display delay". This term refers to the total time required to fully render and ready to leave the GPU and then through the output circuit of the signal source, through the downstream of the cable, into the display, through the processing circuit of the display, and finally through the following steps: display on the screen . QFT transmits each frame at a higher rate to reduce the overall display delay, thereby further improving the snapshot speed, response speed, and providing real-time interactive virtual reality.
Fast media switching is designed to solve a specific problem. Suppose you are watching a movie trailer through a streaming service. It is not uncommon for different trailers to use different frame rates (such as 60 Hz, 50 Hz or 24 Hz). Similarly, many streaming media devices (Roku, AppleTV) use 60Hz for their menus, but movies use 24Hz as the frequency. When switching from one frame rate to another, all devices in the HDMI connection chain must change their clocks and re-synchronize, resulting in an instantaneous interruption called "bonk". Before the content is finally displayed, the viewer's TV screen will turn black. QMS uses the VRR mechanism to allow these frame rate changes without interrupting the viewing experience. The entire system can be quickly and smoothly changed from 60 Hz to a lower frequency, down to 24 Hz, without being clumsy.
Unlike the previous version of the HDMI specification, the 2.1 specification includes a new cable called the "Ultra High Speed HDMI Cable", which is the first cable defined by the HDMI Forum. This new cable is "the only cable that meets strict specifications and is designed to ensure support for high-resolution video modes (including uncompressed video).
) And all other HDMI 2.1 features", according to the HDMI Forum. The increased bandwidth capacity of the cable can support up to 48 Gbps. Although the specification does not specify the length of the cable, the passive cable may reach a maximum of about 3 meters before the bandwidth starts to drop. The new cable will also “exceed the requirements of the latest international EMI standards to significantly reduce the possibility of interference with wireless services such as Wi-Fi.” All ultra-high-speed HDMI cables must pass the mandatory ultra-high-speed HDMI certification program, which includes Test conducted at the HDMI Forum Authorized Testing Center (ATC). The certification program is designed to ensure the quality and functional support/compatibility of all ultra-high-speed HDMI cables put on the market. Qualified cables will be affixed with the official ultra-high-speed HDMI on the package Certification label, and the outer sheath of the cable will also be labeled.
Compared with HDMI 2.0b, the HDMI 2.1 specification provides more functions.
Send as much data as possible over the cable at one time. Therefore, in order to take full advantage of HDMI 2.1, it is necessary to use a new ultra-high-speed certified HDMI cable. Indeed, in the end, you will need to upgrade to a newer cable to benefit from all of the above features. But the reality is that many people don't need all the new cables now to enjoy the most important features to them. Some of the most important functions in the specification, such as VRR, ALLM, eARC terminals, do not require new cables. This leads us...
In terms of audio, HDMI 2.1 mandates support for a function called eARC or Enhanced Audio Return Channel. As the name suggests, this is an updated and more powerful version of the HDMI ARC protocol, which was added to the specification table in 2009 and was introduced as part of the HDMI 1.4 version. Before introducing eARC in detail, let's take a review course on ARC. Before the advent of ARC, the HDMI cable was a one-way path for audio/video signals, which propagated from the source to the downstream, usually through the AV receiver or processor, and finally to the display. Consider the setup about ten years ago. My profile includes a Blu-ray player, a cable box and a Roku HD-XR ribbon. My roommate is a gamer, so I often connect to a game console. All these sources send their signals to my Denon receiver via HDMI cables, and then to my Pioneer TV. This is pretty typical and everything is fine. However, with the advent of smart TVs, things have become more complicated, and people have begun to use streaming media applications built into TVs as the main source of video content. In a setup like mine, even if the TV and receiver are connected via HDMI, the digital audio signal cannot be sent from the TV to the receiver via the cable. Doing so will require the signal to be transmitted "upstream" along a unidirectional HDMI cable. Therefore, in order to route the TV's audio to the AV receiver or soundbar, instead of the TV's internal speakers, a second cable is needed-almost always an optical Toslink cable. This not only adds another ugly cable to deal with, but also limits the sound quality. Some TVs can pass multi-channel audio signals to the receiver or soundbar via optical Toslink, but many other TVs only send stereo signals. (Today, only a few Sony TVs will send multi-channel surround sound signals via Toslink.)
In order to solve all these problems, the audio return channel function was created. ARC effectively turns HDMI into a two-way path, so that the TV can send audio back to the AV receiver, processor or soundbar via the HDMI cable. With ARC, in theory, it becomes easier to enjoy audio from TV streaming applications or antennas. Moreover, this also means (in theory) that you can choose to connect all HDMI sources directly to the TV instead of connecting to the audio device (if this is easier to set up). But ARC has its own limitations and problems. First, it sometimes runs automatically, and sometimes requires users to adjust various settings that may be included in the TV menu system. It also allows manufacturers to manually select which protocol elements they want to include and which ones to ignore. For example, some TVs can send 5.1 Dolby Digital or DTS audio tracks to the receiver via ARC, while other TVs still only support two-channel stereo audio tracks. Finally, ARC cannot deliver high-quality lossless codecs, such as Dolby TrueHD and DTS-HD Master Audio. If you connect a Blu-ray player directly to the TV via HDMI, and then try to use ARC to send audio to the receiver, at best you can only get a degraded data stream that relies on a lossy codec. Although ARC can theoretically support object-based immersive audio formats (such as Dolby Atmos) streamed from Netflix or Amazon Prime Video, they also rely entirely on lossy codecs (such as Dolby Digital Plus) instead of full Fat lossless version. ARC simply does not have the ability (or the required bandwidth) to handle uncompressed and lossless audio.
The enhanced audio return channel aims to solve all the problems of ARC by improving the sound quality function while providing an easier-to-use way. With eARC, the original full-resolution audio signal can be sent "upstream" from the TV to the audio device. Dolby TrueHD, Dolby Atmos, DTS-HD Master Audio and DTS:X audio tracks can all be transmitted in real, lossless form. Due to the greatly increased bandwidth of HDMI 2.1, eARC can handle 32 channels of uncompressed audio, or up to 8 channels of 24-bit/192kHz audio. The audio processing power of the TV is no longer limited, because eARC requires an uncompromising approach to compatibility. Whether the audio signal comes from the TV’s internal application, or from a Blu-ray player or game console directly connected to the TV via HDMI, eARC will pass the full resolution sound signal back to the receiver, front/professional or sound. -bar.
Another benefit of eARC is that the technology integrates an improved "handshake" process between compatible devices. The original ARC protocol relied on HDMI CEC (Consumer Electronics Control), which usually had to be activated manually and did not always work properly. The new eARC standard eliminates the need to activate CEC, allowing users to get up and running without additional steps. This also means that users should be able to control various functions on various devices (such as turning on the power of the TV and then adjusting the volume of the receiver) without using multiple remote controls. The original ARC version should be able to use this function, but it was not ready before the emergence of eARC.
As mentioned above, eARC does not require a new ultra-high-speed HDMI cable. According to HDMI.org, both standard HDMI cables with Ethernet and high-speed HDMI cables with Ethernet can be used. Since using eARC's advanced audio format requires additional bandwidth, some very old (and/or very long) HDMI cables can be laborious, but before spending money on a new cable, be sure to try it with your current cable. The bad news is that some existing ARC-enabled products may not work with new products that use eARC. It is entirely possible for manufacturers to design products that are compatible with both ARC and eARC, but backward compatibility is not a necessary feature. In order for eARC to work properly, both the TV and audio equipment must have compatible HDMI eARC slots. The good news is that eARC (along with automatic low-latency mode and variable refresh rate) is not strictly limited to brand new HDMI 2.1 devices. These features are the most important part of the HDMI 2.1 specification. These features can be added to (or have been added to) certain HDMI 2.0 products through firmware updates. Some HDMI 2.0 TVs launched in 2019 and early 2020 have been updated to support eARC, and AV receivers of Onkyo, Pioneer, Sony, Denon and Marantz have also been updated.
There must be a lot of information in the HDMI 2.1 specification that needs to be unraveled, but the main takeaway is that the specification will provide improved audio and video and a better user experience. Considering the current situation of the global COVID-19 pandemic, how many HDMI 2.1 signal sources will arrive in 2020 or even 2021. CES 2020 is equipped with HDMI 2.1 products, but many manufacturers are facing serious delays in production and shipping plans. Nevertheless, there are already products that can be prepared for the future. All of LG's 2020 OLED TVs have HDMI 2.1 ports. Sony's two top LCD TVs and Samsung's flagship 85-inch Q950TS 8K QLED TVs also have HDMI 2.1 ports. Yamaha stated that its 2020 receiver product lineup will support HDMI 2.1 and will provide services in time for this holiday season to handle the sound of your new Playstation 5 and Xbox X series games. (Again, check the feature list of each product to make sure it supports the features you care about!)
Do you plan to upgrade the system to support HDMI 2.1? What is the feature you are most interested in? Share your thoughts in the relevant forum topics below.
Many thanks to Phil Jones of Sound United for providing HDMI 2.1 education in our YouTube interview series.
For more information, please visit
Jacob is a music lover and audiophile who likes to persuade his friends to buy audio equipment that they can't afford. He is also a freelance writer and editor in Los Angeles.
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It is a new member of the Mars series of wireless video transmission systems.
Mars X is designed to be a more cost-effective entry-level wireless video system than Mars 400 and Mars 400S
The whole concept behind Mars X is to provide an affordable, easy-to-use wireless monitoring solution that does not require RX units or monitors.
Unlike the existing Mars series, Mars X is only an HDMI video transmitter designed for iOS and Android devices.
It allows you to use up to three iOS or Android devices at the same time to monitor images from any camera that can output signals via HDMI.
Being able to view images on a tablet or smartphone is an excellent choice for using TX and RX units and additional displays. This is a very fast, economical and easy way to provide customers, producers or directors, hair dyers, and even hair and makeup artists with a way to view what the camera is shooting.
Whenever I do company shooting, I tend to use Teradek Serv Pro (because my main camera does not have HDMI output). This way, multiple people can see what you are doing on their devices. Customers will have a certain degree of comfort and familiarity when they can view images on a tablet or mobile phone.
Sending a wireless video signal so that multiple people can view it on a dedicated application at once is nothing new. Teradek has been doing this for many years. Recently, we have seen very cost-effective systems from companies such as Vaxis and Zhiyun.
For reasonably priced wireless TX devices, the manufacturing process of Mars X is quite reasonable, especially for products that cost less than $200.
It is not made of plastic. Instead, the housing is made of aluminum.
I don't have any concerns about the quality of the build, I think Holland has done a good job on Mars X.
The weight of Mars X is 112 grams (3.95 ounces). After folding the antenna, its physical size is 1.97 x 1.97 x 0.71 inches / 5 x 5 x 1.8 cm.
Such a small size and weight does mean that it is very suitable for smaller mirrorless and DSLR cameras.
The contents of the box are like this:
Mars X is very basic. It has a very small OLED screen, and there is only one button to turn on/off the TX. Use the same button to change the channel.
The OLED display shows battery status, channel, video format and Wi-Fi password.
Mars X has two foldable antennas. The two antennas move independently of each other. When the device is not in use, you can fold the antennas back to the body of the Mars X.
This is a good design, it can ensure that when you are not using the antenna, you can also ensure the safety of the antenna and minimize its footprint.
Hollyland includes multiple 1/4 20" mounting holes on Mars X. One on the back and one on the bottom.
Hollyland’s box includes a cold shoe mount for a 1/4"-20 adapter. This is how most people might install Mars X, especially those who use mirrorless or DSLR cameras.
no. The Hollyland app does not support video streaming.
All you need to do is to connect the Mars X Wi-Fi on your tablet or phone and enter the password. Then, you open the HollyView App, where you can monitor the image from the camera.
There are a series of monitoring tools in the application. These include:
For more information on how all these work and how they perform, please see this review.
Mars X has a built-in 1 hour 1300 mAh battery that can be charged through the USB Type-C port and supports 5-12V wide voltage charging.
The battery takes approximately 2.5 hours to charge through the USB Type-C port.
For me, the fatal weakness of this product is the running time of the built-in battery. The built-in battery can only last for 1 hour, which is almost meaningless. In fact, to use this product, you need to connect it to an external USB power source. For me, this defeats the purpose of having a small and compact wireless TX.
I had hoped that Mars X had a built-in battery board.
Mars X does not use any type of fan, so it can run completely silently. The problem I did find is that if you use it for a long time under the scorching sun, it does overheat.
Wireless video transmission system is a vital part of many professional works. They allow everyone, from the director to the producer, to focus on the lever, the gaffer, and even the hair and makeup, to see what is happening.
Mars X is not intended for such use. Its target market is the low-end market, where people want to be able to transmit wireless video over a short distance and be able to watch the material on an off-the-shelf smart phone or tablet.
Mars X can transmit the following information:
You can shoot in HD up to 60p, and depending on your camera, it can still send images through the TX unit. I tried to feed 23.98, 24, 25, 30 and 60p signal sources to the TX unit and they all worked.
Input signals in interlaced scan format, such as 1080i, are not supported. In addition, Holland also confirmed that the following cameras are not compatible with Mars X: Canon 6D, 60D, 5D Mark II, 80D and 90D.
Atom X has a single full-size HDMI input. There is no output. If you need a wireless TX device with output, this device is not for you.
You can set a wi-fi password, but as far as I know, no other encryption technology is used on Mars X.
I personally don't think this is a problem, because people who use a wireless system worth $180 may not work on projects that need to protect signal security.
A good wireless video solution, regardless of its price, should be easy to install and run. To be honest, this shouldn't be a difficult task, and if so, then I think the product has failed.
After turning on the power of the TX unit and connecting the video source, you can open the application and connect your tablet or smartphone to the wi-fi network generated by Mars X. You can press the "on/off/channel" button twice to view the wi-fi password on Mars X.
Mars X is very fast and easy to use. After clicking "Connect", the screen will automatically greet and display the image from the video source.
Now, you don’t have to enter the password every time, you only need to enter the password when you connect to the device for the first time.
Back to usability, I wanted to see what happens if I lose the connection, so I closed Mars X and then reopened it. The problem I have is that once I close Mars X, the picture freezes. The image just doesn't come back. What I want to do is to exit the application and click Reconnect. Then, it resumed the connection almost immediately.
So, what if I unplug HDMI from the camera? First, you will receive a warning on the screen. Then, after re-plugging the HDMI cable into the system, the connection can be re-established in less than 2 seconds.
What should I do if I suddenly change the frame rate of the camera from 23.98p to 25p when the system is turned on? Well, this is considered a problem. When the picture came back, it was all broken and unusable. I have to restart the application to make it run again.
The application is very good, Holland includes a lot of useful video aids. This is what you get:
Now you can use multiple image aids at the same time, which is great. If you long-press any touch screen icon, another sub-layer will open, allowing you to make changes to the auxiliary tool.
It’s a bit strange that Canon C-Log, C-Log 2 and Sony S-Log only have LUTs. You can delete these LUTs, but can't find any way to upload LUTs to the device.
You can also take still images from video clips and add annotations. You can also record the video stream from the camera on the app itself. This is a nice little feature that allows you to play and view clips without having to operate from the camera.
There is also a page where you can view information related to Wi-Fi networks, Wi-Fi passwords and operating channels. You can change your password and channel on this page.
You can switch to eight channel options, so you can avoid interference and ensure stable wireless transmission. There is also a channel scanning function in the HollyView app. It can help users find out which channels are clean and which channels are interfered in a complex Wi-Fi environment.
The image quality of the signal appearing on the app is okay. For most people who buy such an affordable system, this may be enough. Having said that, the image does shake a bit when it moves. This is very common for application-based viewing.
Hollyland claims that the effective working range of Mars X is 300 feet (91.4m), but this is only if you have a clear line of sight. The more practical working range is only 150 feet (45.7 m). This is a system designed to be used next to the camera. If you need to send video at any distance, this is not the system to use.
Hollyland claims that the delay is only
Above, you can see my short-latency test using Kinefinity MAVO LF as the camera. As you can see, the latency is not too bad, especially for the HDMI-based TX unit that is being viewed via Wi-Fi on the app. The bottom screen is the monitor on the camera, and the top screen is the iPhone running the HollyView application.
I also measured the average latency in three test series at 77.33ms. These results are not bad for wireless video systems with limited budgets.
Now, there is question 22, which is why you should never use only one camera for a delay test, because the results can change a lot. When I use Panasonic S1H for the same test, the average delay is 216ms
You also need to remember that there will always be a delay between what is displayed on the camera monitor or EFV and what is actually recorded. Normally, it is so small that it is difficult for you to see it in the real world. At the top you can see that the time difference between the real-time stopwatch display and the image displayed on the HollyView app is 191ms.
What do these numbers actually mean? Well, anything below 100ms is considered low, because most people won't feel such a small delay. Once more than 100 milliseconds, we will feel a significant delay.
For reference, you can see above that the delay is zero when using the expensive Teradek system (well, the delay you can get is almost zero. In a scientific sense, no wireless system is actually zero). This is a good example of why you should spend more money on a high-end wireless video system.
You see, HDMI has inherent image processing issues, and yes, if you combine it with one of the cheaper wireless video systems, there may be a lot of delays. But in the end, you need to live with an acceptable limit. For viewing through the app, I can forgive the high latency, but if you use dedicated TX and RX units, it really needs to be below 100ms. When I say less than 100 milliseconds, I mean an "affordable" budget system. For high-end systems, it should be almost zero.
If you only look at application-based latency, you need to look at the performance of other wireless systems that can be transmitted to the application. Even devices like Teradek SERV Pro have very significant delays. I conducted a quick test and found that the delay time was about 200 milliseconds. No matter what camera I use, or whether I am feeding SDI or HDMI signals, the same delay exists.
As a more realistic comparison, let's look at the latency of the Accsoon CineEye wireless video transmitter. The average delay when using CineEye for testing is 203 milliseconds. The delay time of Mars X is much shorter than that of competitors' systems.
How does Mars X actually perform in the real world? Well, let us find out.
I want to test the range and performance of the system. In order to test the range of the system, I stayed within TX's line of sight, and then started walking around the tablet receiving the signal from Mars X. I found that I can get 110 m (360.9') and still maintain a stable signal.
Now, Holland claims that its maximum operating range is 328' (99.97m), but this is usually only possible on flat, open terrain with little wireless interference. I did not expect Mars X to reach its claimed working distance, but in fact it exceeds it by about 10m.
As a comparison, I used the Accsoon CineEye system to conduct a distance test. I found that I could reach about 160m before the signal disappeared.
Whenever I check the wireless video transmitter, I will test it in the exact same location under the same working conditions. In this way, I can get a good understanding of the comparison between various competing systems.
How does this price compare to other wireless video systems that can be streamed to the app?
Please note that all of the above systems provide different functions.
Mars X should be directly compared with the following products:
Although it is designed for Weebill S, it can be used as a standalone wireless transmitter and can be viewed on iOS or Android devices.
The wireless video transmission system needs rock-solid reliability. It doesn't have to hinder you, and it's easy to set up and use. Look, I see, this is a cheap wireless system and it shouldn't behave like a dedicated professional wireless system. That being said, it still needs to be reliable and easy to use.
You need to pay attention to the image delay, depending on the type of camera you are using. My test shows that the image delay can change a lot. With Kinefinity MAVO LF, the latency is quite good for an affordable wireless system, but when used with the Panasonic S1H, it is very bad. If you are watching the signal and are not near the camera and cannot see what is happening, the image delay is not necessarily important.
You need to know clearly that the system will not provide you with lag-free images. The result you will get depends to a large extent on the camera you are using.
Having said that, if you are talking about any application-based wireless streaming, they will have a considerable delay. If you think you can buy one of these types of systems that can stream to multiple smartphones or tablets at the same time, and expect extremely low latency performance, then you have a dream. Having said that, Mars X does provide you with a tolerable delay, and its performance is much better than other affordable wireless transmission systems of its kind.
You don’t want to buy a product, no matter how much it costs, or who you are targeting, and then find that its performance does not meet your expectations. I just want to let you know what you should expect and the limitations of Mars X.
Look, the quality of the stream is not as good as you see on the app, but it is good enough for many people. I don't want to see beautiful images on wireless systems that cost less than $200.
I like what Holland did on Mars X. It is quite reliable, easy to use, has a nice application, and has very good latency for application-based monitoring systems. The only thing to note is that the battery life is 1 hour, which basically forces you to power the device from an external power source.
All in all, it is difficult to troubleshoot a device that costs less than $180, which can stream video to multiple iOS or Android devices with appropriate delays.
Matthew Allard is an award-winning, ACS-certified freelance photography director with 30 years of work experience in more than 50 countries/regions around the world.
He is the editor of Newsshooter.com and has been writing articles on the site since 2010.
Matthew has won 41 ACS awards, including four prestigious golden tripods. In 2016, he won the Best Photography Award at the 21st Asian Television Awards.
Matthew can be hired as a DP in Japan or work anywhere else in the world.
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